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Coming back home: the reconstruction of the identities of the homecomers .
Revista Tempo Single women Governador valadares Argumentovol. Abstract: This article discusses the comings and goings of Brazilian migrants in the early 21st century. Returning is a constituent stage of the migration project. Many men and women, when setting out to America, claimed their intent to come back when completing their migration project, which is usually translated as acquiring enough resources to purchase a house, a vehicle, and to start a business.
This article discusses how men and women go through the experience of returning to the homeland to analyze how they reconstruct the path home and which effects of travel appear in the identity configurations, as well as in familial and gender relations.
Thus we intend to demonstrate that returning is more complex, and that, in several cases, migrants live between two places, forming a transnational identity. Keywords: Transnationalism, Return, Memory. Thus, they sewed a field of transnational relations that began to be observed in the city's everyday life.
Several of them carried Italian passports, as they descended from immigrants who, in turn, came to the region in the late 19th century. Others dived in, traveling with Tourist visas or risking their lives in the Mexican border, as several reports in this text will show.
In both cases, they shared a migration project: working and saving enough to buy a home, a car, and to start a business in Brazil - these assets would mean their project was successful. Thus, their migration project was constructed as temporary, and returning to Brazil was a part of it. Migrants, when leaving for a better life abroad, intend to return, at some point, to their homeland.
This desire was revealed in their letters or when questioned and is translated in their self-definition as temporary migrants.
Several migrants mentioned plans to return to Brazil. Usually, their return is scheduled for the end of the year, as the Holidays are a moment to see family. For many migrants, that time of the year is the most difficult time to stay in the United States. Some only take holidays, others cannot, as many people lack the courage to return without acquiring something. And time passes. This article seeks to follow the trajectory of migrants on their way home. We will discuss their return experiences from semi-structured interviews and oral reports.
Fifteen interviews were conducted and transcribed with returning migrants men and women between the ages of 23 and 53 from various social segments. To obtain broad and consistentit seemed appropriate to articulate information with some field work in the United States.
Thus, between June 19 and July 8,we interviewed 22 Brazilians in the states of Massachusetts and New York, staying there legally or not. In many cases, migrants start living between these two places with a transnational identity. To better understand the return project, it's important to analyze the migration path. To do so, a brief history of the configuration of migratory networks will be presented to analyze the return movement, which has intensified since It's also important to point out that since this is a recent movement, returning, leaving, and staying are mixed within these migrants' lives.
This configures a circularity of people and projects that have modified the city dynamics, impacting not only economic life but the identities of the subjects going through this process. These clubs peaked in the s and were dedicated to educating young farmers while fostering exchange trips with American farmers. Brazilians could learn new techniques in the United States, and young Americans who came to live in Brazil could pass on their techniques to their hosts. The American way of life began to spread into the masses soon after the end of World War II, in an American attempt to include Brazil in its roster of economic and military partners.
There is then an increase in travels to the United States, but not everyone had the financial means to make such airplane trips. However, a new elite of coal and ceramics emerged at that time, as well as an urban middle class that could afford to buy modern goods and traveling as tourists to the United States. This wealthy lifestyle was diffused by the media to other social classes. Often, such an image is enough on its own to stimulate a desire to migrate.
Of dreaming What was the dream? Aldir: I came after my dream, you might say so. When I was a boy I always said, I always had that Their image of successful migrants that they conveyed and the information that began to circulate through them about, for example, nightclubs. Jaci studied at a seminary in Minas Gerais, and there he befriended a young man who later migrated to the United States. He migrated to the United States in himself, with his friend aiding him to find work. After settling in the country, Jaci found employment for his brother, Dino Carminati, who went there in Dino reported on his migratory experience in an interview granted in June According to Dino, at the time it was very easy to get a green card and become legal in the country - it sufficed to prove you had a job in the United States to get the visa.
Dino reports that by the time he arrived in the United States he already knew of five Brazilians living in the city of Manchester alone, around Boston, and Jaci had brought one of them. That Single women Governador valadares was reported on local radio, and they were received with great celebration as soon as they arrived in town. Dino returned to the United States in Single women Governador valadares, bringing their third brother. Alright then. Can you help us?Trem da Vale Vários Trens em Gov. Valadares !
There was a risk in our lives. So we got the insurance and left on December 5, Dino says they drove to Panama. From there, as no more ro were available, they ferried off the car and flew to Lima, in Peru. They spent a week in Peru, waiting for the car and getting to know the city and their historical sites:. Dino: Oh, we saw everything there was to see in Lima. We took a bus in the morning, left and came back at night.
We saw everything, you know, those Inca places? Those things that they have there.
Getting to know Latin America, or some of it, was a part of the trip, even if unplanned. Dino recounts the places he went through and doubts on which way to go. After sixteen days and six hours of traveling, as reported by Dino and followed by local radio news. Dino had returned to Brazil to get engaged and married. They traveled together at the age of 24 in the early s. Mirces  retells her departure:. Jaci really went up before everyone else. So when I learned to speak Spanish with these two friends They even wondered why to Americans Brazil was Latin America.
You have long, blonde hair And a bunch of women from Single women Governador valadares was, too. So they thought it was strange that the city we were in had no Brazilians, and very few foreigners, only Dino, Arnaldo, Valdir, and [ Throughout herMirces always marks the distinction between Brazilians and other Latinos, and among Brazilians as well; as southerners, they had another ethnic identity that made them seem different from other Brazilians.
She had her profession but chose to migrate to follow Dino. She thus reports her motivation to go to her family's reaction:. What was it like? Mirces: My mom was a little apprehensive, and so was I. Because Dino thought of going, his brothers were there already, and we were young, we really went on adventures. I was tired of teaching, so I did the math: I spent this much here, this much there, ends didn't always meet, I had to You know? Mirces and Neide began their migratory experience by following their husbands, unlike reports found in Governador Valadares Minas Gerais.
However, it is interesting that Mirces highlights in her s are her wish for adventure. Neide and Mirces remained in the United States until the early s, when they returned to Brazil with their husbands and children. According to a report by Dino Carminati, his wife Mirces worked in a factory and had two children, but she could not stay in the United States any longer because she missed her family in Brazil. Mirces was naturalized to facilitate the migration of her relatives. However, only one brother emigrated. Dino reports that there were not many people interested in going to America back then.
They owned the nightlife in the city during that decade, as well as businesses that showed the success of their return trajectories. As we will see, returning is not always as expected, and re-migration became a part of her family trajectory. She thus describes her reason to return to Brazil for the first time:. Mirces: Look, she [daughter] was three years old, and my son was 8.
I always wanted to come home. So it was time to do it. Ah, it was stressful. Look, he was even stressed. How are you going to do it? What about school? What about college? So we thought it was time to come home, and I do not regret having come. Not even a little bit. In a recent interview granted to the researchers, Mirces Carminati says to have completed her stage in the migratory current. She tried to return to the United States about three years ago, with her daughter and husband Dino, who was already there.
She stayed there for eight months and then Single women Governador valadares to return to Brazil indefinitely . When commenting on her re-migration to the United States, she synthesizes her attempt to live there again:. Since he was And I wanted a break from the [English] school, too.
It was already time to What we have You see?Single women Governador valadares
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